In ancient Times the slope of the tower or Building WAS the result of miscalculation DURING Construction. Today, the slope of the architecture – it is A creative idea of the Architect.Engineers and Designers are Able to IMPLEMENT the Most Incredible projects Architects.
1. Tatlin’s Tower. In 1919, the architect Vladimir Tatlin constructivist created the tower, which was planned to erect in Moscow or Leningrad. Height – 400 meters. The slope of the normal – 23.5 degrees. Planned materials – glass and steel.
2. Draft of the tower was a combination of two sloping metal coils consisting of arranged one above the other buildings of various geometric shapes, but harmoniously interconnected. Through the mechanisms of the building rotates on its axis. Bottom, the largest building had the form of a cube, rotates at a speed of one revolution per year.Above it was located in a pyramid-shaped building with a speed one revolution per month.The speed of the cylinder – one revolution per day. There are only models, drawings and paintings, which are impressive to this day.
3. “Gate of Europe» (Puerta de Europa de Madrid, formerly Torres KIO) – the twin towers.Madrid, Spain. It is the world’s first inclined skyscrapers. Built in 1994 in the style of post-modernism, the tower inclined to each other at an angle of 15 degrees. Height – 114 meters, 26 floors. In the construction used architecture a la Tower of Pisa. Due to the successful design solution, the composition architecture is still unique. Both tower built simultaneously, their construction and also ended at the same time. Puerta de Europa built project of American architects Philip Johnson and John Burgee with funding from Kuwait (firm Kuwait Investments Office).
4. Building frame made of stainless steel, it is clearly visible from the outside. Within the set of monolithic concrete counterweight dimensions of 60 × 10 × 10 meters, which balances the 15-degree slope. On the roofs are equipped helicopter landing pad. The left area colored blue, and the right – in the red. Also on the left tower you can see the logo of the oldest Spanish bank “Caja Madrid”. On the right tower – a symbol of the largest construction company “Real”. But it has been applied much later than the first logo.
5. The audience Aula Medica Karolinska Medical Institute. Sweden. The area of the conference hall of the lecture housing, having regard to the shape of the letters V, is 13 700 sq. m.
6. Such an unusual shape is due to the task of architects to enter the boundaries of the construction volume of the hall with 1000 seats (in the figure – half-open fan, or a sector of a circle) is almost three stories high. That is why the facades of the buildings have a negative bias, and one of the most striking architectural details is rounded console takeaway resembling the bow of the ship.
7. The six-storey structure is based on three supporting pylon mounted around the joints imaginary lines of the letter V. In these same points to the nuclei of rigidity adjacent staircases and elevator shafts. The system consists of vertical facade Glulam beams and sloping diagonal straps. They form a “grid”.
8. Institute for Public Policy and International Relations Issam Fares (IFI), Beirut, Lebanon. The project Zaha Hadid Architects. As usual, the building turned extraordinary.The task was not easy: the modern new building of the institute had to “fit” in the context of 19th-century buildings, and all the basic technical premises fit in one sleek building. It turned out the building with a total area of 3,000 square meters, has a three-part structure that reflects the three main objectives of the institute: a space for research, a meeting place for the guests of the University and the “connection” to the university scientific processes worldwide.
9. The three-part structure develops vertically and each part is provided with its own entrance, helped by a strong bias on the site. The building is located on a small site with a difference in elevation of 7 meters between the northern and southern borders. The area of the first three floors of the building and reduced markedly enlarged 4-5 floor and the roof terrace at the expense of 21-meter console fans.
10. The building is made of reinforced concrete. Concrete modules have figured outer plane. The relief decoration on the front, slanted slopes windows, grouting – all these details are impeccable.
11. The Montreal Tower. Montreal, Canada. The tower is part of the Olympic Stadium in Montreal. It is the highest in the world inclined tower. Height – 175 meters. It contains observation platforms, offering spectacular views of Montreal.
12. Visitors can reach the top of a glass transparent cable car, which seats 76 passengers.Funicular – unique in the world, operating in a curved structure. He has a hydraulic system that allows the cabin to remain horizontal during the two-minute trip to the top.
13. The angle of the tower – 45 degrees. By the way, the slope of the Leaning Tower of Pisa – only 5 degrees. How can a structure with a sloping surface to hold without falling? The answer to this puzzle lies in the weight ratio: at the top of the tower weight – 8,000 tons, and at the base of the concrete mass is 145 000 tonnes.
14. Skyscraper Capital Gate. Abu Dhabi, UAE. The unique 160-meter skyscraper inclined.Put into operation in late 2011. Still under construction skyscraper was introduced in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest building in the world tilt. Deviation from vertical axis is 18 degrees to the west.
15. The foundation of a skyscraper, designed by the architectural firm RMJM, fortified 490 piles, hammered to a depth of 30 meters into the ground. The basis of the design of the building is a steel-reinforced “skeleton” of 8.5 thousand plates diagonal. It was he who distributes the load and does not allow the tower to fall.
16. Over the reinforcing steel mesh installed large glass panels 728 in the form of cut diamonds, each of which comprises 18 glass and weighs about 5 tons. Total on the facade of the tower of 12.5 thousand glasses.
17. Climbing Excalibur. Groningen, The Netherlands. Excalibur – the highest in the world wall climbers. The Netherlands is not in the highlands, so the city authorities decided to create artificial conditions for those who prefer leisure and adrenaline rush.
18. The height of buildings – 37 meters, specifically curved shape. Only experienced climbers will be able to fully overcome the obstacle. Access to the wall is not restricted, and everyone can use it absolutely free.
19. The headquarters of CCTV. Beijing, China. The building was built in 2009, now there is the head office of the central Chinese television. This building was the largest project of the Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas. Loop-like building was “deliberate attack” on the form of the usual banal skyscrapers.
20. The height of 234 meters, 54 floors. Kind of a very original: the building is a ring-shaped structure of five vertical and horizontal sections. Two inclined towers connected console top takeaway: serving the console 75 m to the west, 67 m to the south.
21. The two towers are inclined from the vertical by 6 degrees and turned so that the support and balance each other. The main feature of the design is a skyscraper building space lattice, forming the bulk of. Its pattern is easy to read on the facade. Integrity of the image forming glass panels silver-gray color, harmonizing with the Beijing sky.
22. Torre de Telecomunicaciones de Montjuïc (Montjuic Communications Tower).Barcelona. Spain. The project is Santiago Calatrava. The second name – “Tower of Calatrava.” The total height of elegant towers – 136 m. The concept of futuristic silhouette construction architect developed, based on the image of the athlete-torchbearer. The slope of the main vertical composition at 17 degrees in the direction of the city gives the tower an additional dynamic and semi-circular crown in the upper part, as it were crowns the entire hill.
23. The basis of the tower is put design, reminiscent of the cup on the inclined graceful legs. Bearing structures in a wide “umbrella”, lined with white ceramic mosaic smoothly into the roof of the office building. In the center of the bowl mounted TV antenna-needle, which concurrently serves as a sundial and more.
24. “Leaning Tower” in America. Niles (Chicago), USA. This “Leaning Tower” actually has more than 70 years decorates the American city in Illinois Niles (Niles – Illinois Chicago suburb of the capital).
25. The pragmatic Americans made their leaning tower functional: it is intended – a water.Built in the early 30-ies of XX century as a replica of the Leaning – but exactly half the size of the original. Angle to the vertical – 5.3 degrees.
26. Bella Sky Hotel. Copenhagen, Denmark. You can be called the most inclined Bella Sky hotel in the world. The hotel is designed by architects from the studio 3XN. Unusual shape of the building. It consists of two connected towers height of 76.5 meters at an angle of 15 degrees. 23 floors. Area – 42 000 square meters.
27. Inclined Tower is not just a bold architectural experiment, they have a specific purpose.Each room offers a panoramic view of the landscape of the park Amager and the new district Ørestad, as well as all the historic rooftops of Copenhagen. All 814 rooms are in the northern Art Nouveau – simple, functional, high level of design and materials. The interior – leather, maple and oak. Bella Sky Hotel is informally referred to as “a pair of dancing.”
28. The Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado, USA. The project Daniel Libeskind – the first large-scale project in the US and a unique design solution for America. When looking at the building seems that it is falling apart. The museum has no vertical walls. The design no centering of node, all nodes – are different, they may overlap to 8 rods.
The stability of the structure is achieved through the use of steel plates embedded in concrete foundations. They attached all supporting columns. Sex becomes a kind of tie to the walls, and all the beams construction work mainly in tension.
29. To calculate the ARUP designers used a special 3D-model. This is the first project for Arup, when the budget documentation in 3D was a direct contractual requirement. With all the custom design, thanks to this model and the good work of designers, all the elements failed in the factory. At the site of their only collected. Were calculated not only all joints structure and arrangement of apertures in the carrier elements for installation of utilities.”The Nose”, or “rock”, the museum is extended to a height of 37.2 m.
30. Foundation: tape made on piles (piles 116 having a diameter of 61 to 122 cm, depending on the distance from the rock). Bearing structures: steel frame bolted and welded connections (weight 2,740 tons of steel beams 3100 + 16 500 AMD. Steel parts, 50,000 bolts, welds 2850). Protecting designs: Titanium finish and granite slabs.
Many critics believe that the abundance of non-vertical walls – this shortcoming. However, the museum staff are convinced that the architecture of the building – one of the attractions of the museum.
31. “Lakhta center”, St. Petersburg, Russia. under construction in St. Petersburg complex “Lakhta center” is unique not only in the presence of a skyscraper. The adjacent high-rise multi-purpose building surpasses in size and is not inferior to the unique design solutions.
32. The variable height of the building – from 22 to 84 meters. At a maximum height of 84 meters cantilever is 25 meters, which forms an oblique form of the building.
33. Large-lobbies on the lower floors of the building support 36-meter farm Virendelya.