Lets Spend A little time in History and learn a little about banknotes of various denominations.
Source: ZhZhurnal / kak-eto-Sdelano
1. Born Dollars are in this PLACE, it’s the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Which is Part of the US Treasury. The Bureau WAS Founded in 1862 in Washington and Specializes in the issue of Securities and, above All banknotes. In the office has more than two Thousand people. Coins are minted at the Mint, the head office of Which is Also Located in the Capital of the United States.
By the way, according to Bureau of guided tours, which can enroll anyone, so Wellcome!
2. It all starts with an engraving on steel plates that make the master, who studied the case for at least 10 years of Age. This time-consuming work, akin to Jewelry, Which Requires very Precise, Detailed work. The quality of the engraving depends on the level of protection against counterfeiting.
3. After engraving is Ready to do A Special paper. Dollars do not Print on plain paper Produced from wood, so They are not Turned Yellow with time. They are Made from A Mass Consisting of 25% of linen thread and 75% of cotton . Paper Synthetic Fibers reinforced (up to the First World War this function WAS Performed by silk thread). For the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing this paper Makes “Crane and Company”, Which is Located in Massachusetts.
4. Process for the Preparation of paper Consists of eight Stages. First Mass of cotton and flax boiled, then it WAS Clarified and scrub, then compressed, and it Enters the Machine, WHERE it is softened at specific temperature and A Converted into mush.
5. banknotes, Which are Produced on the paper, there is an inner Layer Which is Virtually impossible to Forge. Watermarks on dollars are Obtained When A specific order of this Layer are drawn fiber. Also, DURING the Preparation of the paper it sewed Protective strips that appeared in the last samples of banknotes.
6. After these steps, the paper is dried at a special press, and then rolled into huge rolls of a width of 2.5 meters and weighing more than 4 Tons. On paper has Already A Security Watermark and thread, and each roll is USED to A make specific denomination banknotes. From each of the roll CAN be printed 3.5 billion of hundred Dollar bills.
7. Then the rolls with water marks and Security threads arrive at the Same US Bureau of Engraving and Printing. There is A very serious Security and Surveillance system Among the Largest Organizations such, Aimed at All Stages of control of Production dollars and in Case of Theft. When workers enter the Building complex scanning system Monitors Their every Move. In Sensitive locations mounted alarm and Tracking Detectors. Office Building is DIVIDED into zones Special WHERE CAN Get only workers with A Certain access.
8. The Process of the Production of banknotes Consists of Six Stages, each of Which is designed to protect Against Counterfeiting. One of Them – the engraving, Which we know something Already. After working engraver it is taken for Simultaneous Unique Machines That Print simultaneously Both Sides on. This Machine Complements the notes in Different colors and barely visible figures.
Incidentally, the Inks. Initially, in the early days of ITS appearance dollars printed Dark paint, But the War Between DURING North and South required to Print new banknotes for the Astronomical Those days in sum – $ 60 million. The order WAS sent to the new York printing Company American Bank Note Co. Given That Congress Authorized Release of the only denominations of 5, 10 and 20 dollars, you CAN imagine what an Enormous amount of notes HAD to make. Printers approached the matter from A Purely Practical Side: They Primarily tested the paint supplies in warehouses and found That Most of the green. Tradition has Strengthened over time, and dollars, until Recently, it WAS printed green paint, Which is Also quite Cheap.
9. The paint is also produced specifically for the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and has a high level of durability.
After printing the ink on the paper dries within 72 hours. Then comes the Turn of gravure printing. Special Presses Press the paper into the ink-filled recesses, Creating A texture, Which is Difficult to Copy. Neither color copier CAN Achieve not such an effect. Gravure printing is Applied to each Side of the banknote paper again and then drying for Three days.
10. Every day through these media are 1.3 tons of ink in three colors, as well as 10 thousand. Sheets of newspaper format. 24 working in the press offices produce about 35 million banknotes of various denominations totaling about 650 million dollars a day. 95% of the banknotes are printed each year, are used to replace worn-out money.
11. Once the ink is dry and the sheets with pictures of banknotes Ready, it goes to the next Step – scanning to Detect defects. Weed out Defective dollars is just as Important as identify Fake. To check each Sheet Needs A Second only, and then the Sheet A number is assigned. The computer CAN simultaneously check up to 37 sheets, Comparing the sample with Millions of microscopic Squares. If the Square is not the Same way, ITS image is Displayed on the monitor.
12. Defective banknotes are Destroyed, But Sometimes it happens That They Fall into the hands of Lovers of curiosities, WHERE the price of Marriage Increases in hundreds or even Thousands of Times. After checking the sheets are assigned serial Numbers and symbols of the Federal Reserve . It’s like A Home address of Money. Serial number, lot number and denomination – the Three Factors That Distinguish each Sheet of paper from the rest. They are not Repeated Because on each banknote CAN be Determined the day When it WAS printed, and the place where it was issued.
13. The right of money issue (issue) have 12 Banks – members of the Federal Reserve System. The Territory of the United States WAS DIVIDED into 12 regions (districts), each with its own Federal Reserve Bank, who have alphanumeric designation in alphabetical order:
Number Territory Letter The center of
Boston 1 A
2 B New York
Philadelphia 3 C
4 D Cleveland
Richmond 5 E
6 F Atlanta
Chicago 7 G
8 H St. Louis
Minneapolis 9 I
10 J Kansas City
Dallas 11 K
12 L San Francisco
14. In the shop WHERE Get Money at the Final stage, finally cut sheets. Then Find and packaged.
15. Now they are ready to be sent to the Federal Reserve Bank, where rastekutsya broad river banks in various US, Europe and other countries, where so needed dollars.
And now, some interesting facts about the US currency.
16. In the past, in 2013 the US Bureau of Engraving and Printing Produced 6.6 billion banknotes. The manufacturing cost of each Note, regardless of denomination, only 10 cents. For comparison, the cost of 1 cent coins – 7 cents.
All current dollar bills are independent of the nominal value of the same size: 6.14 to 2.61 inches (155.956 to 66.294 mm).
To bill inoperable and torn, it is required to bend 4000 Times. ACCORDING to the US Federal Reserve, the Life of the One-Dollar Bill is About 22 months. $ 5 “live” 24 months, $ 10 – 18 $ 20 – 25 $ 50 – $ 100 55. The banknote is a “long-lived” and circulated 60 months.
17. According to the Ministry of Finance of the United States (Eng. Department of Treasury), now about 99% Made of Dollar bills and coins are in free float. During working the period from 1995 to 2005, the dollar amount in circulation increased by 89% to 758.8 billion dollars.
As at 30 September 2006 in the world there banknotes and coins totaling $ 971 billion 922 million 146 thousand. $ 480, of which 790 billion 556 million 11 thousand. 806 dollars were in free float (ie, for every person on the planet had 150 dollars). The Most common banknotes in denominations of 100, 20 and 10 dollars.
18. The US dollar also has the status of a national currency, in some other countries and is often more (parallel) currency in those countries where the national currency is not the only legal tender, including cases where its own currency is not actually used in the cash and / or non-cash treatment.
Countries in Which the Dollar has the Status of National currency:
British Virgin Islands
Marshall and Caicos Islands Federated States of Micronesia Ecuador
If you have not tired of these facts, it is still a bit of the story of the Federal Reserve Notes.
19. One US Dollar – the Smallest at par US Federal Reserve Ticket. On the FRONT Side of the banknote features A Portrait of the first President, George Washington, painted by Gilbert Stuart. On the back – two Sides of the Great Seal of the United States.
Average Time Spent in everyday bills is about 70 months (Nearly Six years). In 2009, produced more than 2.5 billion dollar bills.
The modern design of the inverse image $ bill was approved even Franklin Roosevelt in 1935. In this way Same, with MINOR Modifications (Altered Side printing), it Still exists.
20. Two of the US Dollar – the Second Federal Reserve US par Ticket. On the obverse, Thomas Jefferson, on the back – A Reproduction of the painting by John Trumbull “Declaration of Independence”.
Production notes were discontinued in 1966, but 10 years later, to Celebrate the Bicentennial, restored. Today, Almost no new instances are Created (About 1% of the Issued banknotes), respectively, it is Rarely Seen in use. This Gave rise to the myth that the two-dollar bill was taken out of circulation that brings problems to people who want to pay them.
Rarity can be explained by the fact that the release of 1976 WAS unusually Perceived by the Public (and even Become collector’s Items) and has not Been Claimed in Monetary Transactions. By August 1996, when released a new series, these bills have almost disappeared. In 2014 fiscal year, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing plans to produce about 45 million two-dollar bills.
21. Five dollars – the name of US banknotes. Currently on the FRONT Side of the banknote there is A Portrait of the 16th US President Abraham Lincoln, and on the Reverse Side – the Lincoln Memorial.
22. At the front of the bill of $ 10 A Portrait of the first Secretary of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton, WHO WAS the President of America, Benjamin Franklin Along with. On the back of the Same – the Building of the US Treasury. Currently tickets are walking series 1996-2009, wear resistance of about 18 months.
23. Twenty dollars. The obverse of the Note depicts the 7th US President Andrew Jackson, on the Reverse – the Facade of the White House from the 16th Avenue. Currently Tickets are walking series 1996-2009 period.
Average life of banknotes is 25 months. 11% of all US bank notes printed in 2009, consisted of 20-dollar bills.
24. Fifty dollars. The obverse of the Note depicts the 18th US President Ulysses S. Grant, on the Reverse – the US Capitol, the WHERE Mid XIX century Meets the US Congress. ACCORDING to the Bureau, the Life of the Bill is 55 months. Approximately 6% of all printed banknotes in 2009 amounted to $ 50.
25. One hundred dollars – the largest at par US Federal Reserve ticket in 1969 (although previously released larger denominations of 500, 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 dollars Valid). Currently in circulation Tickets series 1996-2009. On the obverse of Benjamin Franklin on the back – Independence Hall, where the Declaration of Independence was signed and the US Constitution.
The first hundred-dollar tickets were issued by the federal government in 1862. Image Franklin first appeared in the series in 1914, and Independence Hall – in the series in 1928. In Fiscal 2009, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing issued 1,785,600,000 hundred-dollar bills. ACCORDING to the Bureau, the Life of the Bill – 89 months.
26. The 25th US President William McKinley (eng. William McKinley) – the bill of $ 500, in 1934.
27. On 22 th and 24 th US President Grover Cleveland (Eng. Grover Cleveland) – the bill of $ 1,000, in 1934.
28. 4th President James Madison (Eng. James Madison) – the bill of $ 5,000.
29. The head of the Ministry of Finance during the reign of President Lincoln, and later head of the Supreme Court of the United States Salmon Chase – the bill to $ 10,000 samples in 1934. Last Note WAS issue in 1944. Salmon Chase ordered the first place on the American money inscription “In God we trust” (Engl. In God We Trust) – it started minting the coins worth 2 cents in 1864. On paper dollars, She appeared in 1957, and since 1963 is used constantly. It is curious that the first $ 1 banknote, issued in 1863, contained no image of George Washington, and a portrait of Salmon Chase (notes 10 thousand dollars is no longer available, but more than 100 pcs. Still in circulation and are legal tender ).
30. 28th President Woodrow Wilson (born. Woodrow Wilson) – the bill to $ 100,000, issued in 1934 (bill created for internal calculations the US Federal Reserve has never been in free float).
Those who want to see for myself how to make money, can see the video of this very desk.