According to various estimates, there are in the world from 1000 to 1500 active volcanoes.Distinguish action, it is continuously or periodically erupting, dormant and extinct volcanoes, the eruption of which there is no historical data.
Almost 90% of the active volcanoes are located in the so-called zone of fire of the Earth – a chain of seismically active zones and volcanoes, including underwater, stretching from the coast of Mexico to the south through the Philippine and Indonesian archipelagos and to New Zealand.
1. Mauna Loa, Hawaii.
The largest of the active volcanoes on Earth – Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaii, USA – 4170 m above sea level and 10 000 m from the base on the ocean floor, the crater has an area of over 10 square meters. km.
2. Nyiragongo, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Eruption of August 30, 2010.
January 17, 2002 – Nyiragongo volcano eruption in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Under the lava flows were buried more than half of which is 10 km from Goma town and 14 surrounding villages. Element has claimed more than 100 lives and uprooted up to 300 thousand. Residents. Enormous damage was caused coffee and banana plantations.
3. Mount Etna, Italy. November 17, 2013.
October 27, 2002 eruption of Mount Etna in Sicily, the highest in Europe (3329 m above sea level). The eruption ended only January 30, 2003. Volcanic lava destroyed several tourist campsites, hotels, ski lifts and Mediterranean pine groves. Volcanic eruption caused damage to agriculture in Sicily around 140 million euros. Also erupted in 2004, 2007, 2008 and 2011.
4. Soufrière, the island of Montserrat. February 19, 1999.
July 12, 2003 – Soufriere volcano eruption on the island of Montserrat (Lesser Antilles archipelago, possession of the UK). Island area of 102 square meters. km caused considerable material damage. Ash, covering virtually the entire island, acid rain and volcanic gases destroyed up to 95% of the crop, suffered heavy losses fishing industry. The island has been declared a disaster area.
February 12, 2010 re-eruption of the volcano Soufriere. Powerful “rain” from the ashes fell on several localities of the island of Gran-Terre (Guadeloupe, possession of France). In Pointe-à-Pitre, all schools were closed. The local airport is temporarily stopped working.
5. Merapi, the island of Java. May 15, 2006.
In May 2006, during the eruption of Mount Merapi on the Indonesian island of Java, the most active of the 42 volcanoes of the island rose chetyrehkilometrovoy column of smoke and ashes, in connection with what authorities announced a ban not only flown aircraft over Java, but also on international flights from Australia to Singapore.
June 14, 2006 eruption occurred again. On the slopes emerged to 700 thousand. Cubic meters of lava. 20 thousand. People were evacuated.
As a result of the eruption of 26 October 2010, which lasted about two weeks, lava flows spread to five kilometers, the atmosphere was thrown more than 50 million cubic meters of volcanic ash mixed with basalt dust and sand. Disaster victims steel 347 people, more than 400 thousand. Residents were evacuated. Eruption violated air service over the island.
6. Tungurahua, Ecuador. November 29, 2010.
August 17, 2006 in Ecuador as a result of a powerful volcanic eruption of Tungurahua, located 180 km from the Ecuadorian capital of Quito, killing at least six people were burned and dozens injured. Thousands of peasants were forced to leave their homes because of toxic gases and ash was observed deaths of livestock killed almost the entire crop.
7. Redoubt, USA. February 2, 2002.
In 2009, the airline “Alaska Airlines” repeatedly canceled flights due to the eruption of a volcano Redoubt, from which the crater ash ejected to a height of 15 km. The volcano is 176 miles southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, USA.
8. Eyyafyadlayokudl, Iceland. April 22, 2010.
April 14, 2010 eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyyafyadlayokudl led to a major crisis in the history of commercial aviation. The resulting ashen cloud covered almost the whole of Europe, which has led to the fact that in the period from 15 to 20 April 18 European countries fully closed its skies, and the rest of the country were forced to close and open its air space, depending on weather conditions. The governments of these countries have decided to cease operations in connection with the recommendations of the European Bureau for the control of the safety of air navigation.
In May 2010, due to the activation of another Icelandic volcano Eyyafyadlayokudl was closed airspace over Northern Ireland, north-west of Turkey, on the Munich (Germany), and partly on the northern central England, as well as on a number of areas of Scotland. In the area of the ban hit London airports, as well as Amsterdam and Rotterdam (Netherlands). Due to the promotion of the volcanic ash cloud to the south canceled flights at airports in Portugal, the north-western Spain, northern Italy.
9. Pacaya, Guatemala. August 9, 2006.
May 27, 2010 in Guatemala Pacaya volcano eruption two people were killed, three were missing, 59 injured and about 2 thousand. Homeless. Because sand and ash affected agricultural crops, over 100 houses were damaged or destroyed.
10. Grimsvotn, Iceland. May 22, 2011.
22-25 May 2011 eruption of the volcano Grimsvotn (Iceland), resulting in the airspace of Iceland was temporarily closed. Ash cloud reached British airspace, Germany and Sweden, some flights were canceled. According to volcanologists, the volcano emitted into the atmosphere much more ash than Eyyafyadlayokudl volcano in April 2010, but the ash particles were heavier and settles quickly to the ground, so the traffic jams can be avoided.
11. Puyehue, Chile. June 5, 2011.
June 4, 2011 eruption of the volcano Puyehue, located on the Chilean side of the Andes. Ash column reached a height of 12 km. In neighboring Argentina at the resort town of San Carlos de Bariloche fallen ash and small stones, a few days was paralyzed airports in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Montevideo (Uruguay).
12. Paluweh, Indonesia. August 12, 2013.
August 10, 2013 in Indonesia in the eruption Paluweh, located on a small island Palue, killed six locals. From the danger zone were evacuated about two thousand people – a quarter of the residents who were on the island.
13. Ontake, Japan. September 27, 2014.
The sudden eruption began September 27, 2014. It was accompanied by massive emissions of toxic gases.
Killed or injured climbers and tourists, who were at the time of the eruption on the slopes of the mountain. Japanese doctors have officially confirmed the death of 48 people in the eruption Ontake. According to the Japanese press, nearly 70 people have suffered from poisoning by toxic gases and of respiratory hot volcanic ash. Total on the mountain were about 250 people.